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Facial cleansing. What do we need to know about it?

Facial cleansing is an important part of the skin care routine, as on the one hand it removes the day’s accumulated impurities and on the other hand it prepares the skin for deeper penetration of the active particles from the subsequent products of the daily routine. Facial cleansing is a ritual that has been practiced since ancient times in the ancient world, first by primitively scraping the skin with an object and later by identifying the first exfoliating natural skin care ingredients in ancient Egypt.

Let’s discuss the structure of the skin to successfully analyze the importance of cleaning it. The skin cover consists of three layers: the epidermis, the dermis and the deepest part called the hypodermis. Cleansing the face allows us to support the outermost layer – the epidermis. Exfoliation exfoliates away the dead cells that have been layered over time to reveal new and fresh underlying structures, thus stimulating the epidermal cell renewal cycle, refining skin texture, clarifying the complexion, and producing a radiant glow.

Terminology – what types of facial cleaning are there?

There are different terms to characterize different types of facial cleansing such as: medical cleansing, manual cleansing, at-home cleansing with cosmetic products, deep cleansing, double cleansing, machine cleansing and many other variations.

When we talk about medical cleaning, we are referring to a specialized procedure performed under the utmost conditions of sterility by a specially trained medical aesthetician. The ultimate goal of the manipulation is the removal of excess sebum and the removal of harmful particles from the environment, the accumulated layer of dead cells and the release of clogged pores and comedones. The procedure is suitable for almost any skin type, without couperose or extremely sensitive, in which case the necessary modifications with apparatus procedures are offered. Men also need facial cleansing, even in some cases because of the greater density and thickness of the skin, may need even more intensive in terms of duration and frequency of the procedure.

Occasionally, facial cleansing is also required for children 10-12 years of age. With the current urbanization of the population, highly polluted environment and high percentage of harmful and processed foods, children are experiencing acceleration and faster maturation, onset of puberty and growing up. This of course also leads to changes in their skin and the appearance of problems. Regular facial cleansing can prevent or help treat these skin problems.

The frequency of medical facial cleansing is determined by the type of skin, its tendency to become oily and its sensitivity. It is normally done once a month, but for patients with acneic, or oily skin, the intensity of the treatment frequency can be increased to twice a month in active phases. While for people with dry and sensitive or dehydrated skin, it can be done once every 2-3 months. For couperose or very sensitive skin, there is another alternative therapy called Hydrafacial, which we will talk about later in the article.

Manual or “manual” facial cleansing

Facial cleansing procedures

This is nothing other than what was formerly called medical facial cleansing or classic manual extraction of comedones, milliums and ultimately ridding the skin of excess sebum and residual buildup. The procedure usually takes about one hour and requires no prior preparation.

The following steps shall be followed with maximum sterility:

  1. Apparatus steam bath for maximum pore expansion.
  2. Manual extraction of clogged pores, closed and open comedones.
  3. Darsonvalisation for skin disinfection
  4. Facial massage with gentle movements to stimulate blood flow and lymph circulation, relaxation of muscle groups.
  5. Soothing mask for faster soothing of redness.
  6. Placement of the finished product.

An interesting alternative to the last step 5 is the use of liquid nitrogen or so-called liquid nitrogen facial cleansing, which achieves a more intense pore shrinking and cooling effect.

Home skin care

However, skin care should continue at home with no less importance to adequately remove the accumulated during the day dirt, residues of make-up and cosmetic products, secreted sebum.

There are many different types of cosmetic products that find application in different skin types. Depending on their texture and form of application they can be: gel, foam, oil, lotion, etc.

Foaming gel or direct foam-form are particularly suitable for oily skin for maximum removal of excess sebum, especially in combination with niacinamide /Vitamin B3/ and alpha- and beta-hydroxyl exfoliating acids (ANA, BHA), glycolic acid as a representative of ANA and salicylic acid of the BHA group, for example. Niacinamide soothes inflamed areas and redness, while hydroxyl acids act exfoliating by helping to unclog pores, removing fine lines and imperfections over time.

A cleansing oil or milk would be best for dry or dehydrated skin in combination with active ingredients such as humectants /glycerin/, ceramides or hyaluronic acid. In this way, the barrier function of the skin is maintained and moisture is retained, reducing the feeling of tightness and discomfort.

The products are applied by gentle rubbing massage movements on pre-moistened facial skin. Rinse gently with cool water and dry with a white towel suitable only for this area.

It is usual to wash the face twice a day, in the morning and in the evening, of course according to individual needs. Most often an exception is made for dry or dehydrated skin. In such a case, the morning cleaning with a cosmetic product is replaced only by water or even in some cases can be discontinued.

Double cleaning

Woman taking care of her skin

Recently, the concept of double cleansing or “double cleansing” has entered our circles, emphasizing the need to use two products in two consecutive steps in order to cleanse and care for the skin completely and effectively.

  1. The first step involves an “oil-based cleanser” or an oil-based product that can be used to remove excess sebum, makeup residue or those from applied cosmetics containing fat-soluble ingredients, a classic example being sunscreens. This step can also be done with micellar water, always placing the product on a dry face and applying with fine massage movements. Finally wash off with lukewarm, careful not hot or cold water. In this case, the mycelium is a surfactant that sucks the fat-soluble particles from the surface of the skin.
  2. Cleanse the face with a water-based product to remove any remaining impurities. In this step, the gel or foam wash is applied to a wet face and rinsed again with cool water.

Finally, the remaining moisture is gently absorbed with a clean, face-only cloth.

It’s important to note that we double cleanse every night before bed when makeup or fat-soluble cosmetics like sunscreen are applied during the day.

Apparatus facial cleansing

Apparatus facial cleansing is a non-invasive procedure through which, with specialized professional equipment, mechanical removal of skin impurities is achieved under strictly adapted parameters, suitable even for sensitive or couperose skin, while at the same time achieving a therapeutic result with the help of specialized serums.

Unlike the classic manual cleansing, in this case, no pre-steaming of the facial skin is done in order to unclog the pores and subsequent manual extraction. This makes the procedure far less traumatic, but at the same time less effective when it comes to releasing comedones and excess sebum in harder to reach areas.

For oily and acne-prone skin, this type of apparatus procedure cannot replace, but only complement the classic medical facial cleansing.


At Aestheline Clinic we work with an American brand Hydrafacial device.

A hydrafacial, or so-called facial, is a cleansing and hydrating treatment suitable for sensitive skin. The therapy is the only alternative for a reactive skin condition, better known as rosacea, of course with the correct adaptation of the parameters, which again achieves a fine exfoliation of the skin with the removal of dead cells and excess sebum, which explains the anti-aging action of the procedure. No prior preparation is needed before the procedure, and the daily beauty rout ine can be started the very next day.

The following three simple sequential steps are followed:

  1. Cleansing and exfoliation of the skin by improving microcirculation and lymphatic drainage of the face with a vacuum tip.
  2. Chemical peel with a gentle percentage of alpha- (ANA) or beta-hydroxyl acids (BHA) to remove the dead layer of cells resulting in subsequent brightening of the facial skin.
  3. Extraction of blackheads and enlarged pores using a specialized vacuum tip.
  4. Hydration of the skin by target serums based on hyaluronic acid and nucleotides with different ratios of individualized ingredients to treat personal characteristics, e.g. hyperpigmentation, fine lines, pronounced dehydration.

Immediately after the procedure, you may experience a quick transient redness, which usually subsides within a few hours.

What do we achieve as an end result?

Refreshing of the skin, reduction of exacerbations of acne, clarification of the complexion, even anti-aging effect with smoothing of fine lines and imperfections.

In conclusion, I would like to stress the importance of a daily routine tailored to the appropriate individualized products for the skin type after an analysis and detailed consultation with a specialist in the field of dermatology.

No less important remains the competent performance of medical or apparatus facial cleansing by well-trained and specialized medical personnel, tailored to the individual characteristics of the skin and its current state. The correct execution of the procedure also determines the final result.

The article was prepared for you by Dr. Kafelova, part of the Aestheline Clinic team. The clinic offers a wide range of aesthetic procedures. Aestheline specialists work with professional medical cosmetics, such as the English brand Medik8, which they know and trust after many years of proven quality and results.